Swift 学习笔记 「扩展」

#Program

扩展就是向一个已有的类、结构体或枚举类型添加新功能。

扩展语法

extension SomeType {
    // 加到SomeType的新功能写到这里
}

使用关键字 extension

计算型属性

extension Double {
    var km: Double { return self * 1_000.0 }
    var m : Double { return self }
    var cm: Double { return self / 100.0 }
    var mm: Double { return self / 1_000.0 }
    var ft: Double { return self / 3.28084 }
}
let oneInch = 25.4.mm
println("One inch is \(oneInch) meters")
// 打印输出:"One inch is 0.0254 meters"
let threeFeet = 3.ft
println("Three feet is \(threeFeet) meters")
// 打印输出:"Three feet is 0.914399970739201 meters"

构造器

扩展只能向类中添加新的便利构造器

struct Size {
    var width = 0.0, height = 0.0
}
struct Point {
    var x = 0.0, y = 0.0
}
struct Rect {
    var origin = Point()
    var size = Size()
}

extension Rect {
    init(center: Point, size: Size) {
        let originX = center.x - (size.width / 2)
        let originY = center.y - (size.height / 2)
        self.init(origin: Point(x: originX, y: originY), size: size)
    }
}

下标

extension Int {
    subscript(digitIndex: Int) -> Int {
        var decimalBase = 1
            for _ in 1...digitIndex {
                decimalBase *= 10
            }
        return (self / decimalBase) % 10
    }
}
746381295[0]
// returns 5
746381295[1]
// returns 9
746381295[2]
// returns 2
746381295[8]
// returns 7

END